The following pages show the result of years of painstaking efforts by an informal Historical Committee of the Roco Family based in Manila to try to trace the roots of the family.  Although this began as a mere attempt to build a “family tree” by cousins belonging to families descended from the Mateo Eleno De Roco branch, the discovery in 1995 of a diary written in Spanish by Juan Emeterio De Dios De Roco written in the early 19th century spurred the committee to further its quest to seek out the original roots of the Roco Family.


          Questions like – are we of Italian descent?  Spanish? Do we really have only one ‘c’ in Roco or two ‘c’s? – went unresolved for a long time.  But a database was finally established by Facundo “Ding” S. Roco using a Family Origins software in late 1995 after a month of deciphering and translating the very worn-out photocopies of Juan Emeterio De Dios’ diary. Ding then forwarded the database to his cousin, Carlos “Itos” Roco, in New York who promptly developed a website and put the Family History online.


          Since then, many Rocos from around the world have contacted Itos and Ding though the internet.  Most noteworthy of this was Jack Joseph De Roco and his wife, Maria, who contributed the history of one of the missing brothers.  It turned out the eldest son of Tomas Manuel De Roco --  Jose Simon De Roco --  had migrated to California in the 19th century.


          Tito Jack, as he is fondly called, turned out to be a fountain of information about the family, providing all kinds of leads and stories.  He also initiated contact with Jude Grupe of the Westphalian Heraldry Society and they uncovered a whole new branch of the Roco Family in Chile and Peru.  This branch, although originally Rocos, were now carrying the family names of Carvajal and Campofrio.  Their family also had a website.


          On the basis of more research, Jude Grupe was able to establish the link between the Rocos of the Philippines and the Rocos of Chile and Alcantara in Spain.  A new armorial bearing based on the the Coat of Arms of Don Bernardo Roco, Conqueror of Alcantara, was then prepared and granted to both the Roco and De Roco families by the Westphalian Heraldry Society.


          Notwithstanding this, Itos Roco was able to get confirmation of the existence of the ancient Roco Family from the New York City Public Library which had a copy of the Enciclopedia Heraldica y Genealogia where all the names and coats of arms of the Spanish nobility were recorded.  This he sent by email to Ding Roco in Manila who then translated the references.


          Ding Roco in turn, taking advantage of a business trip to France, then traveled to Spain with his wife, Alicia, to seek confirmation of the findings from primary documents in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid and in the Louvre in Paris. 


          In the Louvre, Ding found a copy of a book on the Reconquista of Spain in English, and two books from the 16th and  17th century, one written by Pedro Roco de Campofrio,  and the other about the family of Juan Martin Roco de Campofrio, Lord of Campofrio.   Both books detailed the family line of the Roco Family all the way to the 8th century shortly after the last Gothic King of the Iberian Peninsula was defeated by the Moors.


          The following translations of both the entry in the Enciclopedia Heraldica y Genealogia and the diary,  including copious footnotes from primary sources and secondary sources, attempt to give the reader not just a translation --   but a view of the Philippines and Spain during those times.


          It is now obvious that the family name, Roco, evolved from the French Roch or Roche.  The name  Rocco is clearly the Italian version of Roco.  Which of these is older perhaps does not matter.  What matters is that all this information tells a story about a family from ancient Urgel,  an almost mystical kingdom in the beautiful mountainous region of the Pyrennees, who dared to continue to fight for freedom along with remnants of the Gothic kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula against all odds, helping build the Kingdom of Asturias, and succeeding in passing on to generation after generation of descendants a very strong pioneering and conquering spirit and an indomitable faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.







(Free translation of pages 78-85 completed  by Facundo “Ding” Jesus Sagarbarria Roco

on 29 April 2003 at Baltimore Sofitel Demeure Hotel in Paris, 88 bis, avenue Kleber)



          (Translator’s Note: Many thanks to Jude Grupe of the Westphalian Heraldic Society in Manila who provided the leads to the existence of this Encyclopedia, to Tito Jack Joseph de Roco who has provided inspiration and more leads  for the continued quest to trace the family tree from his residence in Brazil, and to Carlos “Itos” Roco who took time out of his busy schedule to go to the New York City Public Library to look for this book and photocopy the pages.

            In translating, I have tried to supplement the information found in these pages to give as accurate a timeline as possible.  These data are found in the footnotes.   It would seem that the history of the Roco Family is intricately interlinked with the history of the Reconquista of Spain which in turn is the history of the liberation of the former Iberian province of the Visigothic kingdom which had been lost to the Moorish invasion in 711 during the reign of  King Rodrigo, the last of the Gothic kings.

            In contrast, chroniclers of that period tell us that liberty was restored to the Christian peoples and the Asturian kingdom brought into being when the majority of the surviving Goths of royal blood came to Asturias and elected Pelayo, son of Duke Fafila, King (719-737).  Pelayo was King Rodrigo’s grandnephew.

            This same Pelayo, when faced with an overwhelming Muslim force demanding that he surrender, replied:  “I will not associate with the Arabs in friendship nor will I submit to their authority…for we confide in the mercy of the Lord that from this little hill that you see, the salvation of Spain and of the army of the Gothic people will be restored… Hence we spurn this multitude of pagans and do not fear them…”

            The ensuing battle of Covadonga fought probably on 28 May 722 was a great victory for Pelayo and the kingdom of Asturias was born.  This is very interesting in the light of the fact that one of the earliest Governors of Asturias was Bernal Roco, father of Bernardo Roco – Conqueror of Alcantara.Asturias later on became part of the Kingdom of Leon.)



En campo de gules, un monticulo de penas, de oro.


Bibliografia  --  “Armoria”, de J.R. Vila, nobiliario del siglo xvii.  --- “Nobiliari General Catalan”, de Felix Domenech y Roura, cuaderno 20.




          A noble family from the Extremadura,  which maintained  during later generations a very old tradition, the provenance of which comes from the great House of the Counts of Urgel.


Modern research has proven that the tradition has solid foundations.


It is confirmed in a document from the Collection Salazar y Castro, which is found in the Library of the Academy of History, which was brought to light by Don Antonio del Solar Taboada and by the Lord Marquis of Ciadoncha, in his noteworthy study, “Juan Martin Roco, Lord of Campofrio”, and the “Memorial of the Rocos”, printed in 1602 by  Pedro Roco Campofrio,  which was also saved in the Library of the aforementioned Academy[1]. 


The testimonies of two of the ancient knights who are direct descendants of the House of Roco, corroborated furthermore the origin of this particular family.  These knights, after passing through Castile, founded the family in the town of Alcantara in the Extremadura, in the province of Caceres,  according to the genealogy of this branch of the family which we will refer to later on.


This branch apparently was surnamed Roch originally, then it was changed to Roco, and much later to Roco de Campofrio,  noting particularly that the new branches that emananted  from this family did  not use the surname Roco all the time.  That is why many of the descendants use the surname Campofrio alone, or Campofrio de Carvajal, or Roco de Carvajal, or Carvajal alone, Botello de Cordoba, Roco de Cordoba and Cordoba de Campofrio, while others maintained in the first place the surname Roco, without passing information to immediate descendants these variations in the family name. 


Another branch of this family was surnamed Roco de Villagutierrez during various generations.  This branch was established and principally based in the town of Valencia of Alcantara (Caceres).  Another branch established itself in the City of Rodrigo, moving later on to Seville and Granada.  And another branch established in Chile the family, Roco, which has gained fame in that country.


We refer the continuation of the genealogy of this branch of the family, in order to receive later, although in a brief or incomplete form, which this work obliges us to do in view of space constraints, some genealogical data of other branches.




I.                   The Count Armengol of Barbastro[2] and his lady, Clemencia, gave birth to (probably 1064-65?)

II.                 Guillermo Roch, husband of the Viscountess  Doña Blanca, who were the parents of

III.               Vidal Roch, who passed by Castille with his cousin Armengol, Count of Urgel.  Vidal married the lady Elia Rodriguez, daughter of Pedro Rodriguez de Guzman, and this union gave birth to

IV.               Bernal Roco, the first to appear with this surname.  He was Governor of Asturias[3] and a rich man with banner and pot.  He married the lady, Estefania, daughter of Count Armengol of Castille and sister of Count Armengol of Requena, and born out of this marriage were sons

          1   Bernardo Roco, followed by,

          2.º   Artal Roco, and

              Vidal Roco.


V.       Bernardo Roco conquered the town of Alcantara (1213) of the Extremadura[4] and founded the family of his surname.  The King Alfonso IX rewarded his services by giving him the fields of Campofrio, two leagues of this town, which was located near the fort of the Moor, Abdalba.  There is clear evidence from the document from the Collection of Salazar y Castro that was cited previously that this Bernardo was the son of Bernal Roco, Governor of Asturias.  In this work, it is written that this Bernardo, the Conqueror of Alcantara, obtained two boons from the King Alfonso IX of Leon, in Zamora, on the 26th of May and on the 16th of June of the year 1251?  (Translator’s note:  Probably earlier since Alfonso IX died 24 September 1230), and in these he is referred to as --  “dilecto viro Bernardo Roco, filio Bernaldi Roco, dominantis Asturiis” (Beloved knight Bernardo Roco, son of Bernaldi Roco, lord of Asturias).  He married Maria Alonso Pimentel (daughter of Alonso Pimentel and the lady Maria Fernandez).  He died in the Battle of Seville (1248)[5], but had these sons  with his wife:[6]

1.  Martin Roco, details follow.

          Second and third were Bernardo and Arnaldo Roco who died in the capture of Seville.       

          VI.      Martin Roco was one of the conquerors of Seville from where he went on to fight the infidels that had seized Murcia[7], perishing in the course of this endeavour (around 1238).  He had married the lady, Sancha Tellez, daughter of Alonso Tellez “the Old One”, and the union produced

          First, Diego Roco whose details follow.

          Second, Bernardo who died with his father in Murcia, and

          Third, Frey Gonzalo Roco,  Knight Commander of Portozuelo, in the Order of Alcantara,  who died in front of the knights of this Order in the Battle for the Patute River.[8]



          VII.   Diego Roco was born in the town of Alcantara and fought against the Moors in the Battle for Jaen[9], from where he left gravely wounded, and died later in his hometown.  With his wife, the lady Elvira Rodriguez, he bore

          VIII.   Miguel Roco, who served under the King Don Alfonso XI and he died during the capture of Algeciras.  From his marriage with the lady Maria Gonzales were born

First, Juan Martin, whose details follow.

Second and third, Diego and Bernardo, who both died with their father in the Battle of Algeciras. 


          IX.  Juan Martin Roco, a native of Alcantara, was Lord of Campofrio, young gentleman of the King Don Alfonso XI[10], Knight of the Order of the Band, Warden of Cetina under Don Pedro I “The Cruel”, and Servant of Don Enrique II.  He found himself in these great battles of his time.  He lived over a hundred years. 

          In the testimony he executed in his hometown, before the Notary Pedro Gonzales on the 20th of June 1402, he confirmed the origins of his family which he traced to the Counts of Urgel, and he recommended to his sons “to be fearful to obey the Holy Commandments and defend the Good Law and die for it,  as we were descended from the Counts of Urgel from whom we have come.”

          He died in Alcantara and is interred with the banner of the Order of the Band, with his weapons and sword in a tomb in the parish church of Santa Maria de Almocabar which is located in front of the plaza’s entrance.  He had been married to the lady, Cecilia Fernandez de Heredia, niece of Frey Juan Fernandez de Heredia,  the Grand Master of the Supreme Order of St. john.  He had with his wife these sons:

First, Juan Martinez Roco de Campofrio, whose details follow.

Second, Miguel, who died in infancy.

Third and fourth, Bernardo and Vidal, Knights of St. John, who died in Rodas.


XI.  Juan Martinez Roco de Campofrio was born in Alcantara.  He was Lord of Campofrio and the first to take this name,  Campofrio.  He married the lady Sancha Rodriguez Pereira y Amaya in Salamanca and from this union were born

First, Juan Martin Roco, who was called “The Old One”, a native of Alcantara who married the lady, Maria de Peon.  He died in the year 1479.  The couple formed the branch of the family  that stayed through the men in the town of Alcantara and in the City of Caceres until the eighteenth century. His descendants retained the Lordship of Rosavilla and the title of Count of the Tower of Fresno.

Second, Alonso Fernandez Perero Roco de Campofrio, whose details follow.

Third, Sancha Rodriguez de Campofrio, who was married to Lope Rodriguez Villalobos, Knight of St. James.

Fourth, Elvira Rodriguez, wife of Garcia Fernandez Perero.

Fifth, Catalina Fernandez, a spinster, and

Sixth, Gonzalo Martin de Campofrio who married the lady, Maria Gonzales Botello, and they had a son:

a) Alonso Roco de Campofrio, who was married to the lady, Teresa Suarez de Figueras.  From this couple come the branch of the family which came from Alcantara and went to Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca), Granada, Cordoba and Sevilla, using as surnames – de Botello y Campofrio, Cordoba Roco y Campofrio, Roco de Cordoba Botello, Cordoba y Campofrio, and  Fernandez de Cordoba Castilla y Campofrio.  His descendants are referred to in the information on the surname “Campofrio”, Volume XX of this Dictionary of Family Names, XXI of the Encyclopedia.


XII.     Alonso Roco de Campofrio was born in Alcantara and was married there to the lady, Doña Maria Gonzales de Carvajal y Cid.  He died in Alcantara in the year 1488.  These are his children:

First, Pedro Campofrio de Carvajal, whose details follow.

Second, Juan, of whom we know nothing.

Third is Ines who was first married to Francisco de Carvajal y Ulloa, and then to Juan de Cabrera,

And fourth, Maria de Campofrio, the wife of Juan Castellanos.


XIII.    Pedro Campofrio de Carvajal, a native of Alcantara, was the first who used the surname Campofrio in his  mother’s history,  and his descendants  are so surnamed.  Campofrio de Carvajal principally stayed in Chile.  He married the lady, Doña Teresa de Sanabria Maldonado and they had several children.

First was Alonso Campofrio de Carvajal,  the second to carry this name, whose details follow.

Second was Francisco who married Elvira Gutierrez Flores, and was followed by

Third, Juan; then fourth, by Maria, wife of Alonso de Caceres; fifth, by Sancha, wife of Licenciado Caceres; and sixth, by Teresa.


XIV.    Alonso Campofrio de Carvajal, the second to carry this name, was called “The Old One”.  He was born in Alcantara and there got married to the lady, Doña Francisca de Villalobos y Perera, and they had the following children.

First, Alonso Campofrio de Carvajal, the third to carry this name, whose details follow.

Second, third, fourth and fifth were the following:  Frey Sancho, Teresa, Francisca and Maria who married Pedro Paredes Delgadillo.


XV.     Alonso Campofrio de Carvajal, the third of this name, was born in Alcantara between the years 1534 and 1536.  He joined the navy with his kinsman, the Adelantado Diego de Sanabria,  and attempted to take the Rio de la Plata but the failure of this endeavour forced them to land instead on the island of Santo Domingo from where they marched on to Peru to serve under the command of Admiral Jeronimo de Silva during the rebellion of Hernandez Giron.

Later, he proceeded to Chile by land then by boat to La Serena then towards Concepcion where he worked in the fort and center of the city.  In the year 1558, he joined another campaign.  He was Lieutenant General during the conquest of Cuyo, a neighboring territory, where he became a Councilor of the first Town Council of Mendoza.  He served during the Battle of Arauco during the time of de Villagra whom he accompanied to Chile.  He distinguished himself in Arauco and Concepcion.  Quiroga he named Corregidor de Santiago de Chile and in this city, he settled.  His testament was prepared in this capital on the 10th of October of the year 1593.  He had married Doña Mariana de Riberos (daughter of Francisco de Riberos, the friend of Pedro Valdivia  and of Doña Teresa de Figueroa y Ortiz de Gaete,  a niece by blood  of Doña Marina Ortiz de Gaete, wife of Valdivia[11].)  They had seven children – five boys and two daughters.

Two of his sons, named Alonso and Lazaro, died childless.  The third,  Jose Campofrio de Carvajal, founded this branch of the Chilean family in the City of La Serena.  The fourth, Manuel Roco Campofrio y Carvajal, was one of the encomenderos of Vallehermoso.  From the three branches that stayed in Chile, their descendants played prominent roles in the history of this country.

In the testament prepared in Santiago, Chile on the 29th of January of the year 1660, the fourth of these brothers, Manuel Roco Campofrio de Carvajal, confirmed (as this had been done similarly by his fourth grandfather, Juan Martin Roco), that his family had originated from the Counts of Urgel and he  encouraged his descendants  to “fulfill your promises, without failure to all, for we are a noble family, we look up to the Lord who is the greatest enabler to do good.  This is how He wrought the Armengoles, the Counts of Urge[12]l, my forefathers.”




Of the family branch from the town of Alcantara, there were also descendants.

I.  Francisco Roco de Campofrio, a native of Alcantara, who lived there during the fifteenth century.  He married the lady, Doña Isabel de Ulloa Paredes, a native of the town of Brozas (Caceres) and they had the following children:


II.  Pedro Roco de Campofrio, a native of Alcantara and Knight and Procurator General of the Order of Alcantara.  He married the lady, Doña Paula Pantoja Davila, a native of Toledo (daughter of Alonso Fernandez de Pantoja and the lady, Doña Catalina Riolid y Avila, natives of Toledo) and they had the following children.


III.  Juan Roco Campofrio, who is also known by the surname Roco Pantoja Campofrio, a native of Toledo, who joined the crusade as Knight of the Order of Alcantara in the year 1621.  He married the lady, Doña Beatriz de Godoy Ovando, a native of Caceres (daughter of Rodrigo de Godoy Carvajal, Knight of Calatrava, and the lady, Doña Antonia de Ovando Saavedra, natives of Caceres) and they were the parents of…


IV.   Pedro Roco de Godoy[13], a native of Brozas, resided in Caceres and was a Knight of the Order of Alcantara in the year 1657.





          From the family surnamed Roco de Villagutierrez of the town of Valencia de Alcantara, came:


          II  The lawyer Juan Roco de Villagutierrez Chumacero, a native of Valencia de Alcantara and Member of the Royal Council of the Indians, who married the lady, Doña Isabel de Mercado and he also married the lady, Doña Juana de Toro,  a native of Valladolid (daughter of  Luis de Mercado and the lady, Doña Juana de Toro, both natives of Valladolid). He had children with his second wife.


          III.  The Maestre de Campo, Pedro Roco de Villagutierrez y de Mercado, a native of Madrid and Knight of the Order of St. James which he joined on the 18th of November of the year 1642.  He married the lady, Doña Luisa de Castilla Gudiel who comes from Seville, daughter of Juan Manuel Gudiel, a native of Seville, Lord of the Serrezuela and Knight of St. James, and also the lady, Doña Ines de Castilla y Acuña, a native of Seville, who was originally from Valladolid and was the Lady of the House of Castilla in that city.  The Maestre Don Pedro and his wife, Doña Luisa, were the parents of


          IV.  Juan Roco de Castilla, a native of Seville and Knight of the Order of Alcantara from the 24th of April of the year 1648.


* * *

          In Naples, there lived another ancient family with the family name, Roco and/or Rocco.  They are related to other noble families of that city and of Caraffa.  One of them was Juan Roco, Lieutenant of the Maestre de Campo General, the Marquis de Torre Cuso and Baron of Amato, who became a Knight of the Order of Calatrava in the year 1640.  Another relative, Carlos Rocco y Carraffa, joined the Order of Calatrava on the 5th of February of the year 1635.  WE DO NOT KNOW IF THERE EXISTS A RELATION IN TERMS OF ORIGIN AND PARENTAGE BETWEEN THE ITALIAN AND SPANISH BRANCHES OF THE ROCO FAMILY.

(Translator’s note:  Capitalization and highlighted was made by the translator.)




          Partido:  1º, de plata, con un aguila de sable, y 2º, jaquelado de sable de oro.

          Así las usaron ramas apellidadas Roco de Campofrio.


          Quartered:  1º, Of silver, with a warrior eagle, and 2º, embedded in a golden sword.

          This was the way it was used by those surnamed Roco de Campofrio.


          Miguel de Salazar asigna a este apellido, que escribe Rocco, las siguientes:  Cortado:  1º, de azur, con tres roques de oro o plata, cuya posicion no indica, y 2º, de azur, con tres bandas de oro.  Y escribe que procede de Montagna, afirmacion que no hemos combrobado.


          Miguel de Salazar ascribed to those who used the surname, Rocco, the following:

Divided:  1º,  Azure, with three rooks of gold or silver,  the positions not indicated, and 2º, azure, with three bands of gold.  He wrote that this came from the Montagnas, but we cannot find information to confirm this.


          Bibliografia – Formulario de Armerias, de Miguel de Salazar, M. tomo I, folio 660, y tomo V, folio 142.  --  El Memorial y los documentos mencionados anteriormente.  --  Los expedients de pruebas de nobleza en el curso de esta afirmacion.[14]








circa 1893 --  English version only


(Translated by Facundo Jesus Sagarbarria Roco on 31 December 1995)



Translator's Note:  The original manuscript of this document was passed on from generation to generation by the descendants of Juan De Dios Emeterio.  It is now in the custody of Menchu Alonzo, great-grandaughter of the author.  Photocopies were given to the members of the Roco Family Historical Committee composed of Menchu Alonzo, Lenny Roco-Fabul, Nenita Roco-Fabregas Garcia, Chato Maneru, and the translator.



1.1    On 29 December 1791, between 7:00 and 8:00 p.m.,  my Father -- Don TOMAS MANUEL DE ROCO -- was born.  He was baptized on the first of January of 1792 at the Parish Church of Cabite[15] by his parish priest, Don Gregorio de la Pena,  with Don Antonio Canelose as his godfather.   Tomas Manuel was confirmed in 1800 by His Excellency, the Archbishop Don Basilio Sancho de Sta. Justa, with Don Francisco Cresini as his godfather.  Tomas Manuel  died on the 11th of June 1857 in Legaspi of the Province of Albay.



2.1    On the 12th of December of the year 1796,  in the town of Sta. Cruz de Manila[16], my mother -- Dona MARIA GUADALUPE DE LOS REYES --  was born.  She was baptized on the 19th of the same month in the same parish with the lady, Dona Seberina Flores, as her godmother.  Maria Guadalupe passed away on the 2nd day of December of the year 1880 without a strand of white hair.


3.1    On the 6th of June of the year 1811,  on a Tuesday between 2:00 and 3:00 p.m., my brother -- JOSE NORVENTO DE ROCO --  (my brother on my father's side) was born in the town of Sta. Cruz de Manila.  On the 8th of the same month, he was baptized in his parish by his parish priest, Don Reymundo Rojas with Don Manuel Varela as his godfather.


4.1    On the 21st of September of the year 1812, between 4:00 and 5:00 a.m. that Sunday,  my parents' hands were joined in marriage in the Church of Sta. Cruz de Manila, with Don Pablo Jose de la Fuente and the lady, Dona Vicenta del Real,  as their godparents and witnesses.


5.1    The history of my brothers' and sisters' births.


        On the 28th of October of the year 1812, my brother -- JOSE SIMON DE ROCO -- was born between midnight and 1:00 a.m. of that Tuesday, and on the 31st day of the same month, he was baptized in the Parish Church of Sta. Cruz de Manila by his parish priest, Don Reymundo Rojas, with Don Pablo Jose de la Fuente as godfather.


6.1    On the 30th of October of the year 1813,  around 3:30 o'clock in the afternoon of that Saturday, my brother -- MANUEL CLAUDIO DE ROCO -- was born.  On the 4th of the following month, he was baptized in his Parish of Sta. Cruz de Manila by his parish priest, Fr.  Jose Barcelona  Monte Geronimo with the lady, Dona Vicenta del Real, as his godmother.  Manuel Claudio died on the 19th of October of the year 1852, at the age of  39, in the Province of Cagayan.



7.1    Page 3

        On the 22nd of April of the year 1815, between 9:00 and 10:00 o'clock of that Saturday night, my brother -- JOAQUIN SOTERO DE ROCO -- was born.  And on the 27th of the same month, he was baptized in his Parish of Sta. Cruz de Manila by his parish priest, Don Jose Valerio de Alcadia with Don Joaquin del Castillo as his godfather.

Joaquin Sotero died on the 19th of April of the year 1834 at the age of nineteen of cholera.


8.1    On the 14th of November of the year 1817,  between one o'clock and two o'clock of that Friday afternoon,  my brother -- MARIANO CLEMENTINO DE ROCO -- was born.  And on the 16th of the same month, he was baptized in his Parish of Sta. Cruz de Manila by his parish priest, Don Domingo Votado de Danacho with the lady, Dona Dorotea de los Satos, and Don Camilo Martinez de la Pena as his godparents.  Mariano Clementino passed away on the 2nd of November of the year 1854 at the age of 37 in the Island of Romblon of the Province of Capiz.


9.1  On the 14th day of December of the year 1818, between 11:00 and 12:00 midnight that Monday, my sister -- CONCEPCION ESPERIRIONA DE ROCO -- was born.  On the 20th of the same month, she was baptized in the parish church of Sta. Cruz of Laguna by the parish priest, Fr. Miguel Persina, with Don Pablo Biron as her godfather.


10.1  On the  3rd day of the month of March of the year 1820, a Friday,  between midnight and 1:00 a.m., I -- JUAN DE DIOS EMETERIO DE ROCO -- was born.  I was baptized on the 4th of  the same month in teh parish church of Sta. Cruz de Manila by the parish priest,  Don Valentin Basa, with Don Antonio Rojas as my godfather.


11.1  (Page 4)


        On the ______ day of February of the year 1822, between 10:00 and 11:00 that Monday night, my sister -- ANDREA CANTARICIO DE ROCO -- was born, and on the 5th of that month, she was baptized by the parish priest of  the town of Pila of the Province of Laguna, Don Pedro Alcantara,  with Don Vicente Versoza as her godfather....(Ed.'s Note: The next sentence was too difficult to decipher.) 

        Andrea Cantaricio passed away on the 25th of June of the year 1827 at the age of five years old due to polio in the town of Sta. Cruz of Laguna.


12.1  On the 6th day of March of the year 1823,  at around 10:00 and 11:00 that Tuesday morning, my sister -- DOLORES CASIMIRA DE ROCO --  was born.  She was baptized on the 8th of the same month in the parish church of Sta. Cruz de Laguna by the parish priest, Fr. Miguel Persiva, with Don Mariano Aguirre and his wife, the lady, Dona Manuela de Aguirre, as her godparents. 

        She passed away on the 25th day of October of the year 1854 at the age of 31 years old in Sampaloc in front of Manila.


13.1  On July 16, 1824, at around 10:00 and 11:00 o'clock that Friday night, my brother -- ANTONIO SESINANDO DE ROCO -- was born.  On the 19th of the same month, he was baptized in the parish church of Sta. Cruz of  Laguna by the priest, Don Jose Manuel Moreno with Don Juan M. Lopez as godfather.  Antonio Sesinando drowned in the China Sea on the month of November of the year 1844 at the age of 20 years old.  He was Second Pilot of the ship, Magallanes.


14.1  On the 15th day of June of the year 1826, at around 9:00 and 10:00 0'clock in the morning that Thursday, my sister -- MODESTA VICENTA DE ROCO -- was born.  And on the 23rd of that same month, she was baptized in the Parish Church of Sta. Cruz of Laguna by the parish priest, Fr. Miguel Persiva,  with Don Jacobo Dabit Edgar as godfather.



15.1 On the 27th of June of the year 1827, a Wednesday,  between 8:00 and 9:00 o'clock in the morning, my brother -- VICENTE LADISLAO DE ROCO -- was born.  And on the first day of July, he was baptized in the parish church of Sta. Cruz de Manila by the parish priest, Don Arcadio Aquino, with Don Julio Guevara as godfather.


16.1  (Page 5)


        On the 15th day of September of the year 1824, at around 6:00 and 7:00 o'clock that Monday morning, my sister -- DOMINGA ROCO -- was born.  She was baptized on the 22nd of the same month in the parish church of Sta. Cruz de Manila by the parish priest, Don Arcadio Aquino, with the lady, Dona Francisca Antonia Fernandez, as her godmother.



17.1  On August 5, 1836, between 1:00 and 2:00 o'clock in the afternoon that Friday, my brother -- JOAQUIN EMIGDIO DE ROCO -- was born.  And on the 13th of that same month, he was baptized in the parish church of  Sta. Cruz de Manila by the parish priest, Don Arcadio Aquino, with Don Toribio del Rivero as godfather.


18.1  On December 14, 1839, at around 10:00 and 11:00 o'clock that Saturday morning, my brother --  ARCENIO MARIA ROCO --  was born.   He was baptized on the 18th of the same month in the parish church of Sta. Cruz de Manila by the priest, Fr. Senon Arcinas, with Don Lorenzo Maroati and his wife,  Dona DOLORES ROCO, as his godparents.


19.1  On the 18th of August of the year 1843, at around 3:00 and 4:00 o'clock in the afternoon that Friday, my brother -- MATEO ELENO DE ROCO -- was born.  On the 27th of the same month, he was baptized in the parish church of Sta. Cruz de Manila by the priest, Don Sabino Tiburcio, with Don Manuel Ramirez de la Orden and Don Juan De Dios and  Don Luciano del Rivero as his  godfathers.


20.1  On the 27th of September 1828,  DAMIANA LOPEZ DE MURILLO was born and on the 10th of October, she was baptised in the parish church of Quiapo by Fr. Don Clemente Eloriega with Dona Sabina Murillo and her father, Pablo Lopez y Inocencia de Guzman present.  On the 6th of April 1851,  I married Dona Damiana Lopez in the Church of the town of Polangui of the Province of Albay[17]......


21.1  On July 6, 1847, between 4 and 5 o'clock in the morning, my daughter, AMALIA FRANCESCA ROCO was born.  She was baptized on the same day in the parish church of Binondo by the parish priest, Fr. .... with Dona Josefa Cacho as her godmother.

(Amalia died on the 1st day of May 1873 in Binondo from a stomach neorisma.)


22.1  On the 31st day of July,  1849, my son, IGNACIO ROCO, was born between 6 and 7 o'clock in the morning.  He was baptized in the parish church of Quiapo by the priest, Fr. .... with Dona Ynocencia de Gamalo as godmother.

(Ignacio died on the 31st of March 1867 in the Town of Ligao in Albay due to gastric fever.)


23.1  On the 29 of June of the year _____, my daughter, PAULA ROCO, was born between 8 and 9 o'clock in the morning.  She was baptized in the parish church of Cagsawa, Province of Albay by the parish priest, Fr. Vicente Lillo, with Dona Lucina (unreadable) as godmother.


24.1          On the 15th day of November of the year 1852, my son, TOMAS EUGENIO ROCO, was born between 7 and 8 o'clock in the morning.  He was baptized in the parish church of Cagsawa by the parish priest, Fr. T. Aniceto de Sillo, of the Province of Albay, with D. ________ Bautista as his godfather.


25.1  On the 7th day of July of the year 1856, between 11 and 12 in the morning, my daughter, MANUELA PAZ FERMINA DE ROCO, was born.  She was baptized on the same day in the parish church of Albay by Fr. Camilo Abainza with Dona Braulia de Vera Comerianta de Legaspi as godmother.



26.1  On the 6th day of June of the year 1856, between 8 and 9 o'clock in the morning, my son, JOSE MARIA SEVERINO DE ROCO, was born. .....  He was baptized by the parish priest, Fr. Don Camilo Abainza on the 16th of the same month,  with Don Fernando Mucio, Administrator of Pilar in Albay, and  Don. _____ Mangati as godfathers.  Dona MODESTA ROCO, proxied for Dona Mamosa Aguilar de Lisaso.



27.1  On the 6th day of April of the year 1857, between 9 and 10 o'clock in the morning, my daughter, ROSARIO SIXTA DE ROCO, was born.  She was baptized on the 10th of the same month in the parish church of Legaspi, Province of Albay, by the parish priest, Don Camilo Abainza with Don Teodoro Labaje ....... and Don Gonzales as godfathers.


28.1  On the 15th day of April of the year 1859, a Friday,  my daughter, DOLORES PATRONA DE ROCO, was born at around 5 to 6 o'clock in the morning.  She was baptized on the same day in the parish church of Legaspi in the Province of Albay by the parish priest, Don Antonio Solis, with Dona _______ de Legaspi was godmother.


29.1  On the 16th day of April of the year 1863, a Tuesday, between 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning, my daughter, YSIDRA PATRONA DE ROCO, was born.  She was baptized on the 18th of the same month in the parish church of Ligao of the Province of Albay by the parish priest, Don Tomas de Alfatana, with Don Teodoro Legaspi,  Devotee? of ......., as godfather, and Dona Vicenta de Ocampo as godmother.


30.1  On the 20th day of _____ of the year 1861, between 7 and 8 o'clock in the morning, my son, SEBASTIAN YSIDRO DE ROCO, was born.  He was baptized in the parish church of Ligao ...... in the same month by the parish  priest, Fr. Tomas Alfatana, and with Don JOAQUIN EMIGDIO DE ROCO as godfather.

(Sebastian died in Manila in the year 1867 ...... due to ......fever)


31.1  On the 9th day of November of the year 1866, at around 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning, my son, RAMON TEODORO ROCO, was born.  He was baptized on the 12th of the same month in the parish church of Ligao  the parish priest at that time being Don Blas Sito, and the godfather was Don Manual Garcia Lombera who was represented by Don VICENTE L. DE ROCO.



32.1  On the 26th day of February of the year 1866, my daughter, ANDREA LUMEN ROCO, was born between 7 and 8 o'clock in the morning.  She was baptized on the 2nd of March in the parish church of Ligao by the parish priest, Fr.  Vicente ....... and with Don Antonio G...... from the Island of Burias who was represented by DON JOAQUIN E. DE ROCO.




33.1  He who wrote these details was my maternal grandfather,  JUAN E. DE ROCO, who died on the 1st day of January of the year 1893 in Legaspi, Albay.


        This is the 6th day of August 1952 and I have written the history of the births of my brothers and my own, and thewedding date and births of my parents.


                                        JOSE F. DEL CASTILLO

                                        Born on the 16th of October









          On 16 February 2003, research on the provenance of the Roco Family in the Philippines showed a direct link between the Roco Family in the Philippines and the Rocos of Medieval Spain.  A branch of the Roco Family in the Philippines which had migrated to the United States was also recorded and contacts made.  As a result, the Westphalian Heraldry Society granted both families a new Coat of Arms based on the original armorial bearings of Don Bernardo Roco, Conqueror of Alcantara, who received his Arms from the King Don Alfonso IX.

Click here to see the Certificates





[1] (Madrid has several societies created to promote scholarship in various fields. One of the oldest is the Academy of the Spanish Language, which was founded in 1713. The Academy of History, founded in 1735, has a major library and collection of historical documents.   Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)


[2] “In the summer of 1064 troops from Burgundy, Normandy, and Aquitaine, with Normans from Italy and other Italians, Catalans, and Aragonese set out against the Muslims.  Their leaders included Robert Crispin of Normandy, William VIII, duke of Aquitaine, and Count Ermenggol III of Urgell, who, six years before, had agreed to share the tribute of the taifas with the count of Barcelona…. At the beginning of August 1064, after a siege of forty days, the Christians captured Barbastro, about sixty miles northeast of Zaragoza….al-Uqtadir, king of Zaragoza (c. 1049-1083), recovered Barbastro, around the end of April 1065.”  “Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain by Joseph F. O’Callaghan, published by University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4011


[3] “…Did the reconquest really happen or was it merely a myth?  If it is legitimate to speak of reconquest, then what exactly is meant by that term?  …Derek Lomax pointed out that the reconquest was not an artificial construct created by modern historians too render the history of medieval Spain intelligible, but rather an ideal invented by Spanish Christians soon after 711’ and developed in the ninth-century kingdom of Asturias.” P. 3, ibid

[4] The Aftermath of the Crusade of Las Navas de Tolosa:  “Aware that he had dealt a severe blow (in 1212) to Almohad power, Alfonso VIII resumed his campaign early in the new year (1213), seizing several castles, including Dueñas adjacent to Salvatierra, which he gave to the knights of Calatrava; naming it Calatrava la nueva, they made it their new headquarters.  At the same time, he recognized the necessity of resolving outstanding differences with Alfonso IX who had attacked the Castilian frontier during the Crusade.  After reaching a settlement, Alfonso IX decided to collaborate in a continuing assault on Islamic Spain and captured Alcantara, on the Tagus River about fifty miles west of Caceres.  He entrusted its defense to the knights of Calatrava, who gave it over to the knights of San Julian, who were known thereafter as the Order of Alcantara.”  Pp. 74-76, ibid.

[5] “After a siege of sixteen months, Seville capitulated on 23 November 1248…Fernando III…made his triumphal entrance into Seville on 22 December 1248…” pp. 115-116 ibid.

[6] (Historical Footnote:  Alfonso IX (1166?-1230), king of León (1188-1230). In 1197 he married Berengaria (Berenguela), daughter of his first cousin King Alfonso VIII of Castile and granddaughter of King Henry II of England. Pope Innocent III annulled the marriage in 1214 because of the family relationship of Alfonso and Berengaria. Alfonso founded the University of Salamanca and captured Cáceres, Badajoz, and Mérida from the Muslim Almohads.  Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

[7] The Submission of the Kingdom of Murcia:  “After the fall of Valencia, Zayyan ibn Mardanish, the erstwhile ruler, took advantage of the confusion brought on by the murder of Ibn Hud in 1238 to establish himself in Murcia, but three years later he was forced to retreat to the port of Alicante…The Order of Santiago, meanwhile, was advancing into the southeast, seizing castles and towns in the sierras of Alcaraz and Segura about eighty to a hundred miles west of Murcia…the family of Ibn Hud decided to acknowledge Fernando III as their overlord and so informed his son Infante Alfonso at Toledo in late February or early March 1243.  At a subsequent meeting at Alcaraz, about  ninety-five  miles west of Murcia, a pact was concluded, probably late in April.  Accompanied by Pelay Perez Correa, master of the Order of Santiago, the Infante entered Murcia around May 1..” pp. 105-106, ibid.

[8] (Historical Footnote:  The church consisted of several influential organizations. The most important were the monasteries and the military religious orders. Monasteries participated in the Christian reconquest, and several bishops and abbots led armies. As the idea of a crusade grew in popularity, the pope encouraged another religious institution in Spain, the military orders. The most important of these included the orders of Santiago, Calatrava, and Alcántara. Knights in the orders took religious vows to fight the infidels, and they played a significant military role in the reconquest between 1150 and 1250. The orders were granted tracts of land to support the reconquest, and those who were admitted gained the status of nobles. Later, the orders grew wealthy and lost their original purpose.  Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

[9] “While Pope Innocent  IV in the Council of Lyon proclaimed a crusade to deliver the Holy Places, Fernando III was intent on gaining control of the upper Guadalquivir about the hitherto impregnable city of Jaen…the Muslims of Jaen came to terms in March 1246 and evacuated the city… Fernando III entered in triumphal procession and heard mass in the mosque which was transformed into a cathedral…” pp. 110-111, ibid.

[10]    (Historical Footnote: Alfonso XI (1310?-50), king of León and Castile (1312-50). A strong defender of the royal prerogative, he courted the lower classes with his economic policies while curtailing the authority of the nobles. On October 30, 1340, he and Alfonso IV of Portugal crushed the resurgent Moors in Spain in the Battle of the Salado River.  Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

[11] (Historical footnote« Valdivia, Pedro de (circa 1500-54), Spanish military leader and conqueror of Chile, born in Villanueva de la Serena. In 1535 he played an important role in the conquest of Venezuela, and in 1537 he served in Peru with the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Pizarro then authorized Valdivia to conquer and colonize Chile. Valdivia left Peru in 1540 with about 175 Spanish soldiers and a contingent of Native Americans, made the difficult march across the Atacama Desert, and, early in 1541, founded Santiago. Hostile Native Americans of the Araucanian tribe nearly demolished the settlement in 1543, but reinforcements arrived in time to save it. the following year Valdivia established la Serena, north of Santiago. Returning to Peru in 1547, he helped quell the rebellion led by Francisco Pizarro's brother Gonzalo Pizarro. Valdivia was named governor of Chile the following year and subsequently founded a number of settlements in central and southern Chile, notably Concepción (1550) and Valdivia (1552). The Araucanian people killed him on January 1, 1554, during an uprising.  Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.»)

[12] (Historical footnote:  Andorra (ancient Urgel?) is traditionally held to have been declared a free state by Charlemagne in the 9th century AD. In 1278 it came under the joint control of the Catalan bishop of Urgel and of the count of Foix of France; through the latter, French rights passed successively to the kings and chiefs of state of France. Andorra pays a nominal biennial tribute to France and to the bishop of Urgel. In 1970 women received the right to vote. Andorra was admitted to the United Nations in 1993.  Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

[13] (Historical Footnote:  A weak ruler, prey to intrigues and corruption, Charles IV was dominated by his chief adviser, Manuel de Godoy. The reign of Charles (1788-1808) coincided with the turbulent French Revolution (1789-1799). The revolution caused extraordinary upheavals throughout Europe and had particularly adverse effects in Spain.

Many European monarchies watched in horror as the French Revolution unfolded, especially after the fall of the Bastille in Paris in 1789. Fearful that revolutionary ideas might spread to the peninsula, Spain’s Bourbon monarchy introduced repressive policies, revived the Inquisition, and ended plans for new domestic reforms. After revolutionary forces executed French Bourbon king Louis XVI in 1793, Spain joined Britain and other European powers in a war against France. The following year France invaded Spain and ravaged its northern provinces, occupying Bilbao and San Sebastián. After initial Spanish resistance, Godoy admitted defeat.

In 1796, as revolutionary fervor in France abated, Godoy reversed course and formed an alliance with France against Britain. The British navy proved superior to the French and Spanish fleets, however. For the next decade, British blockades largely cut off Spain from its American colonies. The economic consequences for Spain were disastrous, as Spanish colonial trade shifted to Britain and the United States and Spain’s finances deteriorated. Worse still, it soon became clear with the rise to power of Napoleon Bonaparte in France that Spain was a junior partner in the alliance. In 1800 Napoleon forced Spain to return the Louisiana Purchase to France. By 1805, after a joint Spanish-French fleet was destroyed by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar, Spain had been reduced to little more than a French puppet. Two years later, with Godoy’s consent, French troops marched across Spain in a bid to conquer Portugal. On their way, French forces occupied army garrisons in north and central Spain.

Resentment among the Spanish people grew, and they turned against Godoy and Charles. Godoy was deposed and Charles was forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Napoleon, who had already decided to assume direct control of Spain, used the unrest as an opportunity to invade Spain. Napoleon ousted both Ferdinand and Charles and placed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the Spanish throne.

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)



[14] Spain: Historical Dates

About 1100-800 BC

Phoenicians began colonizing Spain. Modern cities such as Cádiz and Málaga were founded by the Phoenicians during this time.

400s BC

The Carthaginians conquered much of Spain.

200s BC

Spain became an important part of the Roman Empire following the Punic Wars.

AD 573

The Visigoths completed their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.


The Moors conquered most of Spain. Many Spaniards converted to Islam, and Moorish culture began to flourish.


The Christian reconquest of Spain began.


Aragón and Castile were united under Ferdinand V and Isabella I. The following year the Spanish Inquisition was established.


The Kingdom of Granada was conquered, ending Moorish rule in Spain. Christopher Columbus initiated Spanish claims in the Americas, where Spain quickly established a huge colonial empire.


The Kingdom of Navarre was absorbed into the unified Kingdom of Spain. Spanish culture flourished and Spain became a world power.


The English navy defeated the Spanish Armada, beginning a period of slow decline for Spain.


Great Britain gained Gibraltar from Spain.


Napoleon I of France invaded Spain and captured Madrid. Spanish, English, and Portuguese forces did not drive the French from Spain until 1814.


Most of Spain's American colonies won their independence.


Spain lost the rest of its important overseas possessions following the Spanish-American War.


King Alfonso XIII fled from Spain, and the country became a republic.


Spanish Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco defeated Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War.


Buoyed by strong economic growth, the government eased censorship restrictions. Protests erupted in Barcelona and Madrid, and regional separatist groups gained strength.


Franco died and was succeeded by King Juan Carlos. Spain began the transition to a democratic government.


Spain joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Community (now the European Union), increasing its ties with the rest of Europe.


The Summer Olympic Games were held in Barcelona.


Spain threatened to block expansion of the European Union until a compromise guaranteed protection of Spanish fishing rights. Agreements were reached in March and December giving Spain wider access.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.




[15] Chapter XXX

Jurisdiction of Cavite


243.  The harbor of Cavite is located within sight of and south of Manila inside Manila Bay (which has a perimeter of some 30 leagues), at a distance of 3 leagues by sea and 5 or 6 by land.  It consists of a bent point of land which juts into the sea, this being the reason why the Indians call it Cavit (which means hook or fishhook).  The Spaniards called it Cavite, but the proper term is Tanguay, which means a point of land which juts into the sea.  This is how I hear them (who prefer to use the Tagalog language) call it.


244.  This harbor is sheltered against all winds except that from the northeast which is the direction the mouth faces.  It is formed between Bacoor and the Point known as that of the Ribera.  It must be a league and a third wide and has shallow water, so much so that a loaded galleon cannot come in or go out of it.  This port has a perimeter of some 8 leagues.  Leaving this port and rounding the Point of Ribera, there is a sand bank located 4 leagues west of it, called the shoal of San Nicolas.  It faces north to south, opposite the mouth of the Canas river about a league away.  It runs east to west. the water getting deeper towards the point of Ribera.  Cavite is located at 14 degrees and 30 minutes of latitude north and 3 degrees and 36 minutes of longgitude west of San Bernardino.


245.  The Jurisdiction of Cavite, which is separate from that of the other provinces, falls under its Justicia Mayor who at the same time is the Keeper of the Royal Fort of San Phelipe in this Port.  This juridiction also includes the towns of San Roque, Bacoor, Cavite El Viejo and Binacayan.  There are a total of 1,211 tributes which do not include a multitude of vagabonds, beach dwellers, Sangleys, and mestizos and some Spaniards in the Navy and Ordnance Corps.


p. 82, The Philippine Chronicles of Fray San Antonio, A Translation from the Spanish by D. Pedro Picornell of Book I of CRONICAS DE LA PROVINCIA DE SAN GREGORIO MAGNO by Fray Juan Francisco de San Antonio.

                Impressa an la imprenta del uso de la propria Provincia, sita en el Convento de Nra. Senora de Loreto del Pueblo de Sampaloc, Extra-muros de la Ciudad de Manila: Por Fr. Juan del Sotillo.  Ano de 1738.


[16] Chapter XXVII

The Province of Tongdo


229.  The province of Tongdo has a perimeter of some 25 leagues, this province beginning at the bar of Manila and veering north northeast after a short distance to sail up the estero of Binondo up to Tongdo, its capital.  From there you go on to Tambobong, the last town in this province on this side and bordering Polo in the province of Bulacan, leaving the bar of Bacusay to the left, this being one of the entrances to the bar of Manila.  It is here that the lime kilns of Almeja are located, the source of supply of lime for local construction.


230.  Returning to the bar of Manila, this province runs south along the bay,  the towns of Santiago, la Hermita, Malate and Paranaque being found along the coast, with Pasay, San Lazaro and Dilao behind them.  The province ends here by the town of Bacoor which belongs to the jurisdiction of Cavite.  A tidal estuary goes inland from the bar of Paranaque (where the lime kilns of the king are to be found) until it joins the Pasig River between Pandacan and Santa Ana, thus isolating all the land of Manila.


231.  Going up the Pasig River from its mouth at the Bar of Bata. this province borders that of Laguna de Bai and includes some towns on the banks of this river and the hills of Payaan, San Isidro, San Mateo and others.  The province of Bai begins with its lake from San Pedro Tunasan and includes the mainland of Manila.


232.  This province produces some products from truck farming and vegetable gardens and all kinds of manufactured goods.  It has a large population, but few of these are natives because there are only 6,361 whole tributes in it, 5,670 belonging to the Crown and 691 to private parties.  There are innumerable mestizos classified under the "Ramo de Boletas" and Sangleys from the Alcaceria, as well as a great variety of foreign nationals, so much so that the province contains the confusion of Babylon.  This is so because it includes Manila and its suburbs.


p. 77, The Philippine Chronicles of Fray San Antonio


[17] Chapter XVIII

The Provinces of Albay


188.  The province of Albay belongs to the diocese of Camarines or Nueva Caceres, and is the first one we come to at the "Embocadero" by the point of Bulusan.  Its mouth, called Bagatan, faces northeast, and is a harbor wherein large ships have been built.  It lies in front of the harbors of Ticao and San Jacinto which have already been mentioned and which also belong to this province of Albay.  This Bay of Solsogon must measure some eight leagues along the coast.  The Royal Rope Factory, where cables and ropes are manufactured from abaca, which is plentiful in this land, is located in this town.  The islands of Burias and Masbate, mentioned earlier in the chapter on the Embocadero to Manila, also belong to this province.  These were conquered for the Crown of Castilla in 1569 by the knight from Sevilla, Don Luis Henriquez de Guzman.  Masbate is known for its very rich gold mines, discovered by the Spaniards who first explored this island; but their exploitation has not been brought about either because of the lack of labor experienced in this type of work, or lack of ingenuity, or because of Divine permissiveness or disposition, as has already been mentioned in my chapter on gold.


189.  On the south, the province of Albay extends on the mainland of Luzon for six and a half leagues until the bay of Marigondon, which has a mouth about one-third of a league wide and measures about a league and a half along the coast. To the north, it goes to the point of Tigbi, which lies to the east of the bend of Bulusan.  The Bay of Albay lies on this side, outside of the channel, and an uninhabited islet, called Baga-Rey, lies to the east of it, which with another four more to the north, form this bay.  Its mouth includes these, Baga-Rey and the point of Montufor.  The harbor of Baco is located at a short distance from the latter and is about five leagues from Albay.  The highest and most conical volcano of these islands is located here and can be seen from many leagues away by ships coming from New Spain, as has already been mentioned.  A little later, they see that of Bulusan, which is another volcano of medium height, located at the point.  The bay of Malinao is located down the eastern coast close to this point between Albay and Tigbi.  Its mouth faces south, is about a league wide, and measures about the same distance in width with little differences as one goes in, and must measure about six leagues along the coast.  There are some towns towards the middle of this province, ending with of Albay.  The province of Camarines begins from Cagsaua and from Tigbi on the coast.


p. 62, The Philippine Chronicles of Fray San Antonio